And the bottom … Since the CPP regime a couple of educational reforms have taken place, notably the 1987 Education Reform by the PNDC Government and the 2007/2008 Education Reform by the NPP Government. The magnitude of the task, as well as economic difficulties and political instabilities, have slowed down attempted reforms. This they did with valor and great courage, only to be denied compensation and benefits upon their return to the Gold Coast. The earliest Europeans to arrive here were the Portuguese in the 15 th Century. This example has been uploaded by a student. This has been done in a bid to demonstrate her interest in being integrated into the world or African communities and to allow for integration into Ghana of foreign nationals. These new developments with regard to gender issues go a long way to enhance the image not only of women but also of their own society and nation. The Portuguese were the first to arrive and they named the place where they settled the Gold Coast. The crown agreed to grant independence if so requested by a two-thirds majority of the new legislature. The independence of Ghana is meaningless unless it is linked up with the total liberation of the African continent" Kwame Nkrumah speaking on day of independence. Many traditional aid recipient countries have recently become donors [...], This essay discusses the ability of the governments in developing countries to promote and manage economic development. Ghana’s flag was also adopted on 6 March, 1957. Frankfurt/Main: Societats-Verlag and Federal Foreign Office, Berlin Yoh, John G. Nyuot (2004): Notes on Ethnicity, Democratization and Nation building: Experience in Africa and relevance to West Asia: The Case of Cameroon and Ghana. Ghana became an independent state on March 6, 1957, when Britain relinquished its control over the Gold Coast and Ashanti, the Northern Territories Protectorate, and British Togoland. Many school children spend instructional hours rehearsing to mark this day. Under the leadership of Mr. Kwame Nkrumah, a bright and devoted politician, Ghana found its way towards independence through relatively bloodless means. Thenceforth, Ghana has experienced one of the rarest and admirable stretches of peace in African history. Rawlings stepped down from the presidency in early 2001 and was succeeded by John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) in the first peaceful transfer of power between democratically elected governments since Ghanaian independence in 1957; Kufuor was reelected in 2004. His second military coup established a Provisional National Defense Council as the supreme national government; at local levels, people’s defense committees were to take the campaign for national renewal down to the grass roots. John Evans Atta Mills on July 24, 2012. But the civilian regime, handicapped by the great burden of foreign debt it had inherited and the low prices then obtained by cocoa on the world market, was slow to produce the results expected of it. Akufo-Addo’s administration began to follow up on several of his campaign pledges, such as providing free senior secondary education, which was implemented in September 2017. Didn't find the paper that you were looking for? As already demonstrated above, violent conflicts have erupted and will continue to erupt in areas where traditional states, traditional land tenure, chieftaincies are collapsing or there is a fragmentation of communities. mixture of direct rule by the central government and the rule of African institutions Akufo-Addo was inaugurated on January 7, 2017. Orders:19 The paper specifically discusses the effects of colonization in terms of economic and social development and the cultural tensions and tribal divisions in the newly independent Ghana. Before the results were released, however, the NPP had already made allegations of electoral fraud. The economy and corruption were two of the main themes during the campaign for the 2016 presidential election. John Evans Atta Mills of the NDC went on to narrowly defeat Akufo-Addo by less that one percentage point in a runoff election fraught with tension. ” Sub-Saharan Africa began its journey of decolonization in 1956 when the Sudan won independence after the Egyptian revolution in 1952 (Findley/Rothney 387). The middle stripe is yellow, symbolising Ghana’s enormous mineral wealth, particularly and historically in gold. But Ankrah failed to redeem a promise to restore parliamentary democracy, and in 1969 he gave way to the dynamic young brigadier Akwasi Amankwaa Afrifa, a principal leader of the coup. Even as the [...], The topic that I chose to write about is the Cold War. org/wiki/Ghana“ Hagan, George P. (1991): Nkrumah’s Cultural Policy. (2008): Immigration and Integration in Germany. The British were not the first Europeans to arrive in Ghana but they were the last to leave. Education was promoted” (Wikipedia, History of Germany, 2008: 12). The court’s verdict, issued on August 29, 2013, dismissed the NPP’s petition and upheld Mahama’s victory; Akufo-Addo accepted the outcome. Gender issues Gender issues are essential in nation-building and ought to be tackled vigorously. In February, while Nkrumah was in Beijing, army and police leaders rose against him, and his regime was replaced by a National Liberation Council chaired by Lieut. Much of Ghana's post-independence development is of great interest, but this paper is limited to the evolution of its legal order. Nkrumah saw independent Ghana as a spearhead for the liberation of the rest of Africa from colonial rule and the establishment of a socialist African unity under his leadership. Mills died in office on July 24, 2012, near the end of his term. Also, when Ghana became independent in 1957, the first President realized the need for the promotion of education in Ghana. On the Pan-African front … In Ghana we now have the first woman Chief Justice, Mrs. Georgina Wood, the first woman Speaker of Parliament, Mrs. Justice Joyce Adeline Bamford-Addo and the first woman Acting Inspector-General of Police, Mrs. Elizabeth Mills-Robertson (since the establishment of the Ghana Police Service in 1874 by the British Colonial Administration). We will send an essay sample to you in 2 Hours. wikipedia. Before Ghana attained her independence the peoples who now form Ghana were used to the running of states, empires and kingdoms. New elections were held in July 1956. In: Arhin, 1991: 55-87, Papers of Symposium organized by the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, Legon Accra: Sedco Pubishing Ltd. Hippler, Jochen Hrsg. In the case of Germany, for instance, it can be said that: “From 1763, against resistance from the nobility and citizenry, an ‘enlightened absolutism’ was established in Prussia and Austria, according to which the ruler was to be ‘the first servant of state’. One of the first African countries to gain independence was Ghana, in 1957. (eds. ) This resulted in a substantial victory for the Progress Party, led by Kofi Busia, a university professor who had consistently opposed Nkrumah. Meanwhile, Mahama had been sworn in for his first full term as president earlier that year, on January 7. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The judiciary which is generally seen as the most important arm of government, has been rendered ineffective and weak by the constitution, the executive operates as a supreme arm displaying opulence. In both Germany and Ghana women are ceasing to mere play the second fiddle in society and are assuming highly responsible positions. Modern-day Ghana, which gained its independence on March 6, 1957, consists primarily of the former Gold Coast. It had been both fundamental and crucial to the political economy, and was to find full expression in the Seven-Year Development Plan of 1964, the CPP’s programme for ‘work and happiness’” (Haizel, In: Arhin, 1991: 60-61). Papers of Symposium organized by the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, Legon Accra: Sedco Pubishing Ltd. Before the arrival of Europeans, Ghana was the location of the Ashanti, a powerful tribe in the region. Frankfurt/Main: Societats-Verlag and Federal Foreign Office, Berlin Deutschland, E6 No. Education and Development in Nation-Building Lack of education is one of the most serious factors hindering development in nation-building. 5/2008 October/November: 50-52. He was reelected to a second term in 1996 with almost three-fifths of the vote. Ghana lacks the internal political cohesion that is absolutely necessary for her survival as a nation. Indeed that is something usual and ceremonial. However, in many cases governments have paid lip-service to education, initiated inappropriate reforms and made arbitrary changes not backed by sound reflection and preparation. In: Arhin, 1991: 1-25, Papers of Symposium organized by the Institute of African Studies, University of Ghana, Legon Accra: Sedco Pubishing Ltd. Haizel, E. A. All rights reserved. Ghana succumbed to attacks by its neighbors in the 11th century, but its name and reputation endured. (eds. ) This became the name of the country till independence … Educational development itself had passed the where it was a political project of the greatest magnitude. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. These free-market measures revived Ghana’s economy, which by the early 1990s had one of the highest growth rates in Africa. reforms. After the electoral commission declared Mahama the winner, the NPP filed a petition with the Supreme Court to challenge the results. The Independence Day is celebrated on March 6 every year. Officially known as the Republic of Korea, in contrast to the [...]. But you can one from professional essay writers. By 1960 the independence movement had gained tremendous influence throughout Africa, resulting in the emergence of many new nation-states on the continent. Various factors contributed to the effective push for independence. The national assembly was dissolved, public meetings prohibited, political parties proscribed, and leading politicians imprisoned. their independence. Ghana was the first sub-Saharan nation to free itself from foreign rule, and this led to the eruption of independence movements all over the continent. The Independence Day of Ghana is a national holiday celebrated yearly and the day is granted as an official state holiday for the citizens of Ghana both within and in the diaspora to honour and celebrate the Heroes of Ghana who led the country to attain its independence. A constituent assembly produced a constitution for a second republic, and a general election was held in August 1969. Eventually, in 1979, as the economy floundered, the government of the generals was overthrown by young officers and noncommissioned officers, led by an air force flight lieutenant, Jerry Rawlings. In Africa in general, and Ghana in particular, decen-tralisation is now at the heart of government business and on-going. Since Ghana’s political independence in 1957, reforming the administrative state inherited from the colonial authorities became the country’s major quest for Ghana is located in West Africa near the equator and on the Greenwich meridian. One of the first African countries to gain independence was Ghana, in 1957. Ghana - Ghana - Independence: Nkrumah saw independent Ghana as a spearhead for the liberation of the rest of Africa from colonial rule and the establishment of a socialist African unity under his leadership. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main/New York, ISBN 3-593-37729-2 Arhin, Kwame ed. In the December 2008 presidential elections, the NPP’s candidate, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo, won the first round of voting but did not secure a majority of the vote. For example, for years now, Dr. Angela Merkel has been the German Chancellor, the first female Chancellor indeed. On their arrival, they found so much gold between the River Ankobra and the Volta and subsequently named it “da Mina”, meaning The Mine. Still, there was a peaceful transfer of power, which was heralded by many observers as proof of Ghana’s democratic stability. The arbitrary borders drawn by colonialists only succeeded in forming artificial a multiethnic nation Ghana. There has been a great deal of debate over the extent to which the current phase of globalisation can be defined or delimited by the process of Americanisation. 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These factors included constitutional reform as a means by which to slowly erode British influence, the stirring of the masses by African political elites, and the general post-WWII concern over colonization and its destructive forces. This war was between the USA “Free World” and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) “communist Block” lasted from 1947 to 1991. Especially the reforms in the 1980.s geared the education system away from purely academic to more in tune with the nations manpower needs. By 1966 his dream of African socialism was foundering under haphazard and corrupt administration, massive foreign debts, and declining living standards. Many African countries were colonized by the Europeans before gaining their independence to become sovereign nations of their own. California: UNESCO, Heineman Anderson, Benedict (2005): Die Erfindung der Nation. For Ghana was difficult achieved its independence but it doesn’t care and Ghana was the first Country on Africa to achieve its Independence. Akuffo, who was less effective in governing than his predecessor. After Ghana gained its independence in 1957 the education system, then modelled on the British system, has undergone a series of reforms. The top stripe is red, standing for the blood shed in the struggle for independence. [...], Themes and Issues in American History/4 October 13, 2006 1919-1945 President Wilson’s friend, George L. Record wrote him in early 1919 “that something would have to be done about economic democracy to meet this menace of Socialism. The beginning struggle for independence began in the mid 40s when a British Civil Service and Legislative Council was established. Ghana's rapid shift from an informal economy to a formal economy made education an important political objective. A program to boost the economy by getting at least one factory in each of the country’s more than 200 districts was also launched in 2017. Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo addressing the United Nations General Assembly's 73rd session, New York City, September 26, 2018. There are competing ethnic nationalisms that are hardly prepared to relinquish their hold onto their freedoms and self-determination. Mahama faced seven other candidates, including Akufo-Addo, who again represented the NPP. This group called many of the Ghana people to fight Britain’s wars in Europe and North Africa. Amman, Jordan Presidential Diary (2007): History of Ghana. 5/2008 October/November: 50-52. Subsequent investigations by the country’s Judicial Council resulted in the dismissal of dozens of the accused, including some High Court judges. According to (Graham, 1976), in 1951, there were twenty (20) teacher training colleges in the Gold Coast, but by the time of the attainment of Ghana’s political independence in 1957, the number has risen to thirty. John Dramani Mahama was sworn in as interim president later that day. It is Ghana's National Day and commemorates Ghana's independence from the United Kingdom in 1957. The Portuguese were the first to arrive and they named the place where they settled the Gold Coast. This became the name of the country till independence when it was changed to Ghana. (1988): The Guinea belt: the peoples between Mount Cameroon and the Ivory Coast, In: Elfasi, M. , Hrbek, I. Elfasi, M. , Hrbek, I. For example: “For the first time in the history of the country, the Central Government was to assume full responsibility for educational policy and practice. Ethnic loyalty also makes it difficult to build “strong and viable resources of political association and mass-based political parties, [since selfish politicians can easily manipulate] ethnic loyalty as the cheapest and most reliable strategy to acquire and consolidate power” (Yoh, 2004: 2). Ghana before Independence on March 6,1957 was called Gold Coast. The Education Act of 1987, followed by the Constitution of 1992, gave a new impulse to educational policies in the country. In 1992, in the first presidential balloting held in Ghana since 1979, Rawlings—representing a new party, the National Democratic Congress (NDC)—was elected president. At the end of 1981, Rawlings decided that he and those who thought like him must take the lead in all walks of life, and he again overthrew the government. Abstract This paper looks at the recent history of Ghana and explains the series of events that led up to Ghana’s independence in 1957. Education is relevant to work/employment, rural development, modernization, national identity, cultural identity, ethnic identity, national identity, citizenship, exercise of civic rights and responsibilities, and political awareness which all lead to effective nation-building. (2003): Nation-Building – ein sinnvolles Instrument der Konfliktbearbeitung? Akufo-Addo was declared the winner with almost 54 percent of the vote; Mahama, who followed him with about 44 percent, conceded. That same year, Ghana became a republic and adopted its own constitution, making Nkrumah the president of the government. The colonial power that ruled Ghana until their day of independence was Britain. Education Education, together with language, forms the all-important keys to participation in society. He later was selected to be the NDC’s presidential candidate in the December 7, 2012, election. Dietz Verlag, Bonn Schayan, Janet (2008): Living Together in Germany. In Ghana education has been considered very essential for nation-building. THE INDEPENDENCE OF GHANA IN law, as in politics, the year 1957 will stand out as a landmark in the history of the Commonwealth. On the day of independence Nkrumah declared that independence of Ghana was “meaningless unless” it was “linked up with the total liberation of.” Consequently, the government invested considerable energy and resources to hasten the liberation of African countries still under colonial rule. After a long period of colonial rule, the newly elected Assembly of Ghana, passed a motion directing the government to demand independence from Britain. The machinery of government was overhauled and conservative financial policies introduced. Ghana-Net.com is one of Ghana`s oldest websites, with tourism information`s about Ghana, Live Radio, life and culture of of all Ghana Nation`s, and tribes - like Ga people, Fante, Ewe, Ashanti, Dagbani, Frafra, Krobo and many other tribes and kingdoms of Ghana. A special prosecutor dedicated to rooting out corruption was appointed in 2018. In 1957, when the leaders of the former British colony of the Gold Coast sought an appropriate name for their newly independent state—the first black African nation to gain its independence from colonial rule—they named their new country after ancient Ghana. These peoples co-existed and were bonded by kinship and principles. If you need help faster you can always use our custom writing service. Ghanaian Pres. A very big commemoration is here again as Ghana marks 59 years after independence. Ghana is one of such countries and a lot of people do not know this but Ghana was the first African country to gain her independence in 1957. Ghana independence was very important for all the continent of Africa; this independence motivated others countries from Africa for had their independence. The electoral commission declared that Mahama was the winner with 50.7 percent of the vote—just enough to avoid having a runoff election with Akufo-Addo, who trailed him with 47.74 percent. Get your own essay from professional writers. References Andah, B. W. and Anquandah, J. Despite the economic progress that had been made during Rawlings’s rule, much of the Ghanaian press and many Ghanaian professionals remained highly critical of his economic policies and authoritarian political style. (1991): The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah. 1482, the 1966 coup, and a year later a former chief justice Edward! Followed him with about 44 percent, conceded education, together with language, forms the all-important to. Referendum held to approve this served mainly to show the unpopularity of most., J is Ghana 's national day and commemorates Ghana 's independence Britain... Ghana sought by Rawlings and his colleagues in: Deutschland, E6 No military ruler was Jerry Rawlings ushered... 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